The paper presents a detailed study of energy auditing of the building to improve its overall energy efficiency. Recorded data of energy consumption of each floor in a building are used to diagnose the weak points of the building energy-usage system and then a detailed energy audit study is carried out. The energy audit of the energy usage focuses- mainly on the equipment consumption i.e fans, lighting system, air conditioning system, water pumping system and electronic equipment etc. Based on energy audit results on the total energy consumption of the building for particular time duration the location of equipment and their ratings are the two leading factors for the change of the total energy consumption. Also, the different time slot the total energy consumption of the equipment varies significentjy in summer and winter as well, Therefore, in This paper a comparative study of power demand, equipment cost and their size as well as make has been demonstrated for a sample building.
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P. Kumar, R. K. Rajuvanshi, R. Sharma, P. Yadav, P. Chaturvedi
Microbes are found in very considerable niche of human emironment. A number of techniques are available to get microbes free liquid food and water, for instance, heat treatment,autoclaving, pasteurization, radiation and ultrasonic and sonic wave treatment, but these techniques are limited by many factors and thus are not able to give the results as desired.The present paper is based on high voltage pulsed electric field treatment where the contaminated liquid food and water are subjected to impulse wave of 1.2/50 gs to keep in parallel plate static treatment chamber. The field intensity was varied from 0 to 250 KV/cm and the number of pulses were varied from 0 to 100.the survival ratio of all kinds of microbes was significantly low at the peak voltage of 160kv and n=100 pulses. Since the resistance of different kinds of bacteria vary depending on the shape, size and the genetic makeup. This experiment was designed to check the survival ratio of five kinds of bacteria namely Escherichia coli, E.aerogenes, S.aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Acetobacier inoculated in nutrient broth.Complete inactivation of E.coli was observed at 40kv.
H Rathaur, N.K.Singh, S.K.Tripathi
The paper presents design and analysis of STATCOM power oscillation damping controller. The Phillips-Heffron model of the Single Machine Infinite Bus power system installed with STATCOM has been derived and the systematic approach for designing STATCOM power oscillation damping controller has been presented, the controller places the Eigen value corresponding to mode of oscillation at desired location so that the system has desired degree of stability. The performance of controller has been examined at different system conditions, under different line loadings and the effectiveness of proposed controller is verified through MATLAB simulation.
In photovoltaic power system, both photovoltaic module and switch-mode converters show non-linear and time- invariant characteristics, which is very difficult control. In this paper a small 50W photovoltaic module BP-350 is studied. The operating principle is studied and modeling of non-linear equations is done and unknown parameters like series and shunt resistance are calculated. The performance analysis of this 50W photovoltaic module is presented and simulation results are obtained. The characteristics are plotted by varying at different insolation conditions from 100 % to 20%.
In today's IC's competitive market place, as technology is shrinking and we are stepping into 45nm and below, IC's complexity is increasing, die areas are also getting larger in order to incorporate the increased functionality that comes with more advanced technology. Due to shrinking design, physical verification of design such as design rule checking (DRC) and layout vs. schematic (LVS), may not give accurate result as expected due to electrical side effects inherent in nanometer process technology. Therefore, shrinking designs demand additional verification before being signed-off for manufacturing. For example, if signal integrity (SI) and other electrical effects are not controlled, a design will likely suffer front lower performance, lower yield, and even functional failure. Any chip failure after manufacturing will result in expensive mask changes and delays in getting the chip to market. Consequently, most designs today require a nanometer sign-off process, where the influence of different electrical effects on the functionality and Performance of the design are analyzed before manufacturing.
Tarun Naruka, Subhransu Padhee, Ruchika Lamba
Condition monitoring is a predictive maintenance procedure, which is used to provide warning and predict faults of a system at an early stage, so catastrophic breakdown of the system can be avoided. An efficient condition monitoring method can reduce the cost of breakdown maintenance, increase the working life of system, and reduce the spare part inventory. Condition monitoring system acquires raw data of different system parameters using different sensors. Different signal processing techniques are implemented on the raw data to extract vital clues and estimate the probable faults in the machine. This paper gives an overview of condition monitoring system of induction motor and gives an overview of implementation of multi sensor data fusion technique to improve the efficiency of condition monitoring system.
Power systems are designed to operate at frequencies of 50 or 60 hertz. However certain type of load produce voltage and currents having frequency that are an integer multiple of fundamental frequency. These are called harmonics. The pure sinusoidal wave shape generated by electrical utilities is distorted by the harmonics produced by the increased use of non-linear loads. The harmonics lead to adverse effects like excessive heating and transmission losses. This paper discusses various sources of power harmonics, its impacts and control techniques to minimize harmonics.
Surykant , Y. R. Sood, R. K. Jarial, N. Kushwaha ,V. S. Bisht
This paper presents the Virtual Current Technique as a new model-based diagnostic procedure for the diagnosis of rotor faults in traction drives for railway applications. A rotor fault in a traction drive based on induction motors produces due to some oscillations at twice the slip frequency in the rotor flux as well as in the magnetizing current component. The amplitude of these oscillation, using some motor and controller parameters are measured and one can reconstruct a virtual magnetizing current component and after normalization, which can be used to detect and quantify the extension of rotor faults in a drive subjected to a direct rotor field oriented control scheme. The simulation results demonstrate that with this diagnostic technique, it is possible to diagnose effectively rotor faults, independently of the drive operating conditions, both in steady-state and transient regime.
V.J.Pithwa, B. R. Parekh
DC Motor control is very common in robotic application. The developments in this kind of project are widely used in most electronic devices nowadays. There are many application that have been developed based on motor control in electronic and electrical field such as automation, Flexible manufacturing system and computer integrated manufacturing. Various DC motor control techniques are used such as chopper circuits for dc motor control, using powermos devices in drives and switched mode controller for DC motors. Also there arevarious microcontroller based DC motor controllers available but it will result in limitations regarding remote control applications of robotics. This work deals with the direction and speed control of Permanent Magnet dc motor through imaoe processing in matlab. Motor will be controlled on the basis of image of hand captured by webcam. Image will be acquired and processed through Image processing Programming in Matlab. On the basis of movement of hand on both the sides the motor will rotate in both directions clock-wise and anticlock-wise along with its speed control. Among various microcontrollers Atmega'16 8-bit microcontroller is used due to its high performance, low power, advanced architecture and many more feautures. The goal of this paper is to obtain a microcontroller based PMDC motor control through image processing programming in MAT LAB which will result in remote control ofwide range of robotic applications.
Nikhil Kushwaha, Y. R. Sood, Suryakant, Vimal Singh Bisht
In this era of modernization, deregulation and competition the scenario of the optimization techniques is being evolved dramatically towards the functional mimicry of nature. There are many nature-inspired optimization algorithms such as PSO, Ant Colony, Genetic Algorithm, Evolutionary Techniques etc. Recently Bacterial foraging Optimization Algorithm has attracted a lot of attention as a high-performance optimizer. In 2002, K. M. Passino proposed Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm for distributed optimization and control. One of the major driving forces of BFOA is the chemotactic movement of a virtual bacterium that models a trial solution of the optimization problem. The underlying biology behind the foraging strategy of E.coli is emulated in an extraordinary manner and used as a simple optimization algorithm. This paper presents the BFOA for global optimization.
Shivendra Prakash Verma
This paper deals with design optimization of asynchronous machine (3hp,4 -POLE, 3-PHASE, 50Hz) considering three objective functions torque(T), cost(C) and efficiency (η);using genetic algorithm (GA) /improved genetic algorithm(IGA) & non-linear programming