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This paper presents PSpice simulation of sinusoidal PWM inverters and their performance comparison . An HPWM inverter has been included with its analysis and simulation results. Aso BPWM, UPWM and HPWM inverters have been shown by using PSpice simulation package and the performance of all the three inverters has been computed and compared; their switching losses by calculating their individual power ratios at different conditions. The conclusion drawn is that BPWM inverter has a poorer per-formance as compared to the other two methods and the remaining methods i.e. HPWM and UPWM have almost an equally good performance. In case of soft switching, HPWM has a better performance than UPWM.


Coverage and Capacity are significant issues in RF planning process for Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS). Radio link is interference limited and interference limited network is capacity limited, On the other hand, noise limited network are considered to be coverage limited. An important step towards mitigating this problem is to reduce inter- ference by controlling channel power and reconfiguring existing Base station(BS),so as to enhance Capacity and Coverage of a network. In this paper we propose an effe-ctive method for optimizing channel power along with maximizing the number of served users and mini- mizing the number of cell sites.


A static var compensator (SVC) is used to regulate voltage on a 500 kV, 3000 MVA system. When system voltage is low the SVC generates reactive power (SVC capacitive). When system voltage is high it absorbs reactive power (SVC inductive). The SVC is rated +200 Mvar capacitive and 100 Mvar inductive. The Static Var Compen-sator block is a phasor model representing the SVC static and dynamic characteristics at the system fundamental frequency.


The technique of compensation is used to provide stability to rather unstable systems, which become so due to obvious use of the closed loop feedback. The capacitor in feedback path that decreases the flow of current through main feed forward path at various frequencies, causes the path of low reactance in feedback loop, This effect intro- duces the phase error within the circuit In this paper compensation strategy has been simulated to overcome this effect. Simulation result shows an improvement upto 35 degrees.


Global concern about escalating energy demand, depleting fossil fuel reserves and increasing environ-mental pollution has given an impetus to explore alternative fuels, preferably renewable. Plants oils are a renewable source of combustible material whose energy content can be beneficially utilized for transportation purposes. In this paper, the performance of a diesel engine running on pure Jatropha Curcas Oil (JCO) was experimentally investigated. JCO was supplied at two diff-erent temperatures- 35°C and 65°C. The important charact-eristic properties of JCO were found to be compatible with the requirement of diesel engine fuel. The comparison of fuels was made in terms of brake thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, pressure versus crank angle diagram and exhaust gas temperature. The test results show decrease in thermal efficiency and increase in fuel consu-mption and exhaust gas temper-ature for unheated JCO operation. Larger igniton delay and lower peak cylinder pressure was obsened With it. However, engine perfor-mance was found to Improve when JCO was preheated This performance was jn bet-ween that obtained With desel and unheated JCO On the whole, it can be concluded that for short terrm usage, JCO (preheated to 65°C) can be directly used instead ot diesel, without any opera-tional difficulty modification engine design.


A minimal model of computer network traffic has been def-ined in simple as well as complex networks inorder to study the trade-off between topological based and traffic based routing strategies. The traffic exhibits a phase transition from a low to high congestion state measured in terms of average travel time of packets as a function of packet creation rate in network. This analysis results in a collective behaviour of traffic which presents second-order as well as first- order phases transition between a free-flow phase and a congested phase. Global performance,enlarging the free-flow region is improved by traffic control in heterogeneous networks. Traffic control also introduces non-linear effects, may trigger the appearance ofa congested phase in a discontinuous manner. This paper presents an analytical study of the traffic behaviour in a NOC architecture.


Calotropis gigantea R.Br. is a perennial under-shrub found chiefly in wastelands throughout India. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. Calotropis gigantea belongs to family Asclepia-daceae. The leaves of Calotropis gigantea are traditionally used in the treatment of paralysis, anhralegia, swellings, and intermittent fevers. The aim ofthe present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the methano/ic extract of the leaves of Calotropis gigantea following in-vitro method by evaluating leukocyte and neutrophil infiltration. The study was carried out using the doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg p.o. and indom-ethacin 10mg/kg p.o. as standard. The pharmacological screen-ing of the extract showed significant dose dependent inhibition in leukocyte and neutrophil count which confirms its anti-inflammatory activity


In this age of wireless communication, WLAN and WiMaxare the most common IEEE standards used for wireless. The con-cept of OFDM is used in these standards to obtain a high data rate in addition to reducing the effects like inter symbol inter-ference and inter channel interference. It has proved to be the air interface for the next generation Broadband Wire-less System. FEC is a widely used technique to reduce the error In-terleaver is an imponant and powerful technique to combat a burst of errors for FEC coded signal. In this paper, different inter-leaver schemes which are implemented using VHDL on FPGA platform with all code rates and modulation schemes have been reviewed in relation to their fundamental application and challenges.


The main objectives of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are to increase the transmission capacity of lines and to control the power flow over designated transm-ission system. FACTS devices can perform all objectives of reactive power control and voltage control required for transm-ission and lines. Several schemes of flexible AC transm-ission systems FACTS are in use today. One of the most important FACTS devices is the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), which is used for series voltage injection in desired phase as shown in Fig 1. The (JPFC is a combination of a static Compensator (STATCOM) and a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC), which are coupled via acommon DC link.


This paper analyzes the performance of multi layer feed foward Neural Networks with Gradient descent with momentum and adaptive back propagation (TRAINGDX) and BFGS quasi-Newton back propagation (TRAINBFG) for hand written Hindi Characters of SWARS. In this analysis, five hand written Hindi characters of SWARS from different people are collected and stored as an image. The MATLAB function is used to determine the densities of these scanned images after partitioning the image into 16 portions. These 16 densities for each character are used as an input pattern for the two different Neural Network architec-tures. The two learning rules as the variant of Back Propagation learning algorithm are used to train these Neural Networks. The performance of these two Neural Networks are analyzed for convergence and trends of error in the case of non conver-gence. There are some interesting and important observations which have been considered for trends of error in the case of non convergence. The inheritance of local minima Problem of back propagation algorithm massively affects these two proposed learning algorithm also.


ZnO is a II-VI group semiconductor material with a large direct band. Zinc oxide film has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on to highly cleaned glass subst-rate. The as prepared film is characterized by optical absorption spectra and transmission spectra, X-Ray Defraction (XRD) pattern and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The absorption spectra and transmission spectra of the ZnO film have been taken from (UV-VIS-NIR Spectrophotometer at room temperature. The absorption spectra are used to calculate the band gap of the ZnO film by Tauc 's relation for direct band gap material only The transmission Spectra are used to calculate the optical constants of the ZnO film by Manifacier's envelop method. The X-ray defraction pattern of ZnO is used to calculate crystallite size by Scherrer formula.

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The nonlinearity of a Balanced OTA can be removed using cascading of two balanced OTAs through a resiston However in literature, balanced OTA is implemented using simple current mirrors which have limitations of copying currents. In the pre-sent work, this limitation has been overcome, using casc-ade current mirrors in place of simple current mirrors.Also the simulation results show appreciable improvement in terms of gain and power consumption. The Tunable OTA desi-gned with cascade current mirrors in the present work has a gain of 40 dB and it consumes power of 9 mW. The circuits are impl-emented in 130nm using TSMC MOSIS Level-49 model in TANNER EDAS-Editsimulator


Diclofenac Sodium is an acetic acid NSAlDs with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Diclofenac sodium is also used to treat dysmenorrheal, ocularthritis and rheumentoid atthritis. The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate nanoe-mulsion for de/ivety of Diclofenac Sodium. The nanoemulsion was prepared by (oil in water) nanoemulsion technique. In this method, olive oil, Tween 80 and SLS (cosur factant) was used. The nanoemulsion was evaluated for visco-sity, particle size, conductivity test, drug content uni- formity test, flocculation test, shelf life test, stability test and dissolution test. Diclofenac Sodium nanoemulsion was found to be white in color, having particle size 18.37, showed conductivity (67.ùs). The prepared emulsion was stable. The maximum percentage drug release was 1.71 % in 180 mins.


In this paper the performance of Pattern storage feedback neural network is evaluated for the storage and recalling of finger prints using unsupervised learning. The paper first discusses the storage and recall via hebbian learning and the problem areas or the efficiency issues involved and then the performance enhancement via the pseudo-inverse learning. Performance is measured with respect to storage capacity, recall of distorted or noisy patterns leassociation ofa noisy version ofa stored pattern to the original stored pattern for testing the accretive behaviour of the network and association of new or noisy form of one memorized pattern.

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