This paper describes an efficient implementation of high speed multiplier at the algorithm and archite-cture level, addresses Low-Power, High Speed and Less Area multiplier design systematically from two aspects: internal efforts considering multiplier architectures and external efforts considering input data characteristics. We can achieved High through-put rate by a new architecture implementing our earlier multiplication technique in conventional register pipelining at the bit level. The multiplier is designed by using Xilinx 14.7 for its synthesis result and Modelsim simulator is used for simulation. In this paper we present a study of Booth Multiplier for Area, Power and Speed in VLSI design of 8 bit Multipliers.
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Deepak Kumar, Anjana Rani Gupta, Somesh Kumar
The present study attempts to develop a dynamic model for the MEE to study the transient behavior of the system. Each effect in the process is repres-ented by a number of variables which are related bv the energy and material balance equations for the feed, product and liquor flow. In the present study dynamic equations are being written for the MEE system for a Paper Industry. In this study a generalized model is given which could be applied to any number of effects in the MEE system with simple modifications it could also be applied for Forward Feed, Backward Feed as well as for the Mixed Feed. For such situation basic equations for an effect will be same but the equations for the parameters like density, boiling point elevation and specific heat etc. should be changed and then the model can be used for the other type of evaporator also.
Devendra Pratap, Satyendra Sharma
Radio signal attenuation and path losses rely on the environment and are recognized to be tough to calculate and predict. Past studies of the signal propagation, in an indoor environment have used several models with variable degrees of success and quality. In this paper, the field measurements of signal strength taken at the frequency of 2.437 GHz in indoor environments are presented and analyzed. Based on the characterization of envi-ronment, a new path loss model is proposed, which can be used to predict the signal strength for indoor environment accurately. These parameters may be utilized in future network design.
Traditionally, software development has been managed through plan based approaches that are full of limitations such as poor quality, not meeting customer requirements, unrealistic project devel-opment durations etc. To overcome all these prob-lems, Agile software Development approach is being tattooed as an alternative approach. In this approach, software projects are developed using Iterative and Incremental methods using cross-functional teams and self-organizing. The main focus, in these methods, is to determine require-ments and solutions through collaboration bet-ween these teams through adaptive planning, evolutionary development and delivery and time-boxed iteration. There is a lot of flexibility and speed lent to development process in this approach to meet customer requirements better and in time. This paper is an attempt to understand Agile Software Development approach in detail to crit-ically examine and compare its utility as an altern-ative approach to the development of software projects,
Biodiesel from renewable sources like vegetable oils, animal fats etc. are significantly evaluated as an alternative to fossil fuels. In this context, the present work deals with an underutilized vegetable oil known as"Shorea robusta" or Sal seed oil" as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production which can considerably increase the feedstock availab-ility. The production potential of sal seed oil is a gigantic 1.5 million tons a year and the geo-climatic penetration of the plant is sub-continental with special presence in Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. In the present work, pressure filtered Sal seed oil was transesterified sal seed methyl ester (Biodiesel) with 1:9 oil to methanol molar ratio, 0.5% by weight of catalyst (potassium hydroxide), 65°C reaction temp-erature and 450 rpm agitation speed leading to an ester yield of 96.8%. The results of physico-chemical properties indicated that kinematic viscosity (S.SeSt), density (0.884 gm/cc), heating values (40.28 MJ/kg) of the Sal oil methyl ester (SOME) was well within the ASTM/EN standard limits. Oxidation stability was more than 06 hours in the biodiesel rancimat. The fatty acid profiles of showed richness of saturated fatty acids like Pentadecanoic acid and Mysterie acid.
Maneesh Kumar, Rajdev Tiwari, Rajeev
The most expensive and the time consuming step of software development life cycle is its testing. There are several research proposed to develop a low cost, scalable and effective method for soft- ware testing. With the help of the techniques of automatic generation of test cases one can easily and very efficiently find an optimal set of cases that allow an appropriateness criterion to be fulfilled, which helps in reducing the cost of software testing and resulting in more efficient software testing. In this paper we are trying to discuss a new technique for automated test case generation using teaching learning based optimization. This technique exte-nds the random testing by the use of leaching learning based optimization where the fitness function is based on the branch coverage.
A single-fed circularly polarized (CP) patch antenna is designed and built using L-slot loaded patch technique. The antenna is designed on a high dielectric constant (є r = 10.02) substrate which achieves a reasonable bandwidth and axial ratio bandwidth with respect to a U slot antenna. At the operating frequency of 1.575 GHz with the size of the patch is 25mm X 25mm, while ground plane of 60mm X 60mm and the thickness of the substrate is 9.12mm. Bandwidth is enhanced to 18.42% and Axial Ratio Bandwidth by 4% by this design. The other Parameters of antenna like return loss and radiation pattern are also analyzed using HFSS software.
As an Internet Network and with the ongoing development of multimedia technology is desired a process, that successful retrieval to images from large-scale image collections with comprehensive result. Yet, it is a problem in the field of multimedia digital libraries. The user are not satisfied with the traditional information retrieval techniques, because the use of textual description to represent and query images may provide poor result, due to subjectivity of descriptions. In context to find an image effici-ently and effectively from large image collec-tions by using special important low level visual features are likes color, texture and shape of an image. We know, Image has to be represented with certain important visual features are likes color, texture and shape. In this paper, I propose an efficient and effective image retrieval technique, which is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) that uses dynamic dominant color, texture and shape features of an image.
Prabhaker Agarwal , S.P.Singh ,V.K.Pandey
With the increasing need of spectrum, various computational methods and algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Keeping these views and facts of spectrum shaping capability by FRFT based windows we have proposed a closed form solution for Dirichlet window in fractional domain. This may be useful for analysis of different upcom-ing generations of mobile communication in better ways which are based on OFDM technique. More-over, it is useful for real-time processing of non- stationary signals.
The perspective of nuclear structure throughout the nuclear landscape, regions of structural transition have provided a sensitive structure. In this paper, some aspects of collectivity means of testing our understanding of nuclear and deformation in nuclear structure are presented, using both theoretical and experimental methods.
Sonia Gupta, S.P.Singh, V.K.Pandey
The fast growth of wireless communication is based on the integration of different application. This integration needs increase in capacity or spectral efficiency, possible either by decreasing the fading effects or by spectral reuse. Number of diversity combining technique has been proposed in past to mitigate the fading effects. Either using diversity combining techniques or spectral reuse causes interference; moreover the spectral reuse is main reason for the co channel interference. So the Inter-ference modeling has become a challenging research area for the performance analysis and improvement of wireless communication system. Closed form expressions for co-channel inter-ference for Rayleigh distribution of received signal have been given in the literature. In this paper, we have given a simple analytical model for another important fading distribution namely Nakagami distribution giving a closed form solution for co-channel interference assuming that the interferer is linearly located.
Dhananjay Singh, Vivek Kumar Srivastav
Optical fibers nre structt'res that are typically designed to transmit energy along specified trajectory with minimal attenuation and single distortion. Optical fibers with small losses appeared in 1970. This event has laid the found-ation for modern optical communication industry. However Si waveguides have some nonlinearity which occurs when electromagnetic waves interact with core of the waveguide. To do away with this problem it was begun to use Optical fibers with helical winding known as complex optical wave-guides. Also in conventional waveguide modes are mixed with adjacent mode if number is greater than 2.405. The use of helical winding in optical fibers makes the analysis much accurate. As the number of propagating modes depends on the helix pitch angle, so helical winding at core cladding interface can control the dispersion or propagation characteristics of the optical wave-guide. The model dispersion characteristics of circular optical waveguide with helical winding at core- cladding interface are obtained for different pitch angle. This paper gives the idea to obtain dispersion characteristics, and comparison of dispersion Characteristics at different pitch angles. We obtain-ed the dispersion characteristics by using boundary condition and this condition have been utilized to get the model Eigen equation. From these Eigen value equations curve are obtained and plotted for five Particular values of the pitch angle of the winding. Also Power now in core and cladding has been and the result has been compared.
When high-speed media or channels are used, high-speed data compression is desired. Software implementations are often not fast enough. In this paper, we present the very high speed hardware description language (VHDL) modeling enviro-nment of Lempel-Ziv-(LZW) algorithm for binary data compression to ease the description, veri-fication, simulation and hardware realization. The VHDL model defines a main block, which desc-ribe the LZW algorithm for binary data compression through a behavioral and structural description. The LZW algorithm for binary data compression comprises of two modules compressor and decom-pressor. The input of compressor is 1-bit bit stream read in according to the clock cycle. The output is an 8-bit integer stream fed into the deco-mpressor, which is an index that represents the memory location of the bit string stored in the dictionary. The output of decompressor is 1-bit bit stream. Once detecting the Particular approaches for input, output, main block and different modules, the VIIDL descriptions are run through a VHDL simulator, followed by the timing analysis for the validation, functionality and Performance of the designated model that supports the effective-ness of the model for the application.