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A non-spinning machine element called an axle is used to support rotating parts such as wheels and pulleys. The axle is one of the train's most important components, and it is connected to the wheel via an interference fit. Since the beginning of railway history, derailment due to axle failure has been one of the most devastating sources of devastation. The goal is to use Computer-Aided Build software to design a railway wheel axle with specific dimensions, then model it using simulation software with the required loading conditions and constraints. This paper used Unigraphics NX-12 to model the train wheel axle and then imported it into Hypermesh software to simulate it.


These days analysing patient data in the form of medical images to perform diagnose while doing detection and prediction of a disease has emerged as a biggest research challenge. All these medical images can be in the form of X-RAY, CT scan, MRI, PET and SPECT. These images carry minute information about heart, brain, nerves etc within themselves. It may happen that these images get corrupted due to noise while capturing them. This makes the complete image interpretation process very difficult and inaccurate. It has been found that the accuracy rate of existing method is very less so improvement is required to make them more accurate. This paper proposes a Machine Learning Model based on Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that will contain all the filters required to de-noise MRI or USI Images. This model will have same error rate efficiency like those of data mining techniques which radiologists were interested in. The filters used in the proposed work are namely Weiner Filter, Gaussian Filter, Median Filter that are capable of removing most common noises such as Salt and Pepper, Poisson, Speckle, Blurred, Gaussian existing in MRI images in Grey Scale and RGB Scale.


Abstract: Online platforms are being increasingly used for ecommerce. It is increasingly being popularized through online modes of advertising. The paper aims to study the Real estate portals to evaluate those parameters which are more helpful than others. Although increasingly used the portals have hardly been investigated from the user’s perspective. This paper looks into their experience of online property information search. Based on 25 responses collected on a 10 questions survey, the technical features offered by the portals are assessed based on user experience. Somehow when it comes to decision making based on the portal, there are many parameters that need to be considered. In this research, lack of features, neighborhood understanding, communication lag are attributed to the failure. One case study is taken for the purpose, PRIME PROPERTIES, which is newly launched provides an ideal online market place for Builders, Developers, Real Estates, and Agent, Sellers and Buyers to advertise their listings online. This portal is developed by students of IGNOU under guidance of Experienced Teacher and Senior student support. This is an instance of direct customer handling information display and easing customer needs and burden through direct transaction through our site to pay the installments as well as other enquiries. The portal taken for study includes functions like updating and maintaining details regarding different options for taking property on rent and buys or sell property. Also included are advertisement of property of handling through online chatting with the idea of direct interaction between property dealer and the customer. Property detail display include transaction category, property type, state, city and area etc details.


Robotics is a combination of science, engineering and technology that produces machines, called robots, that can replace human actions. Robots imitate the action of human beings; it can perform the task not only what a human can do but also what they not able to do. This paper provides an overview of a robotic arms that can be controlled using a smart host microcontroller and can be powered by either solar energy or by direct power supply. The paper includes a thorough review of the referenced papers, which focuses on the development of the robotic arm with the use of smart host microcontroller and a camera function for real time image processing. There are different research papers are followed and real time image processing based Robotic arm showed the better performance and applications among other Arduino or Raspberry pi based robotic arms. Different robots/ robotic arms are capable of surveillance and also with an alternate application in detecting and following a pre specified object. There are various fields where these robotic arms play a vital role such as, in farming a robotic arm can be used to pluck fruits/vegetables from trees and plants or to implant seeds into soil without the need of human touch, in military base to remove the land mines that can be harmful for soldiers, in the medical industries (complicated surgery or pharmaceutical field), in the field of science, where a nuclear waste can be disposed by the help of a robotic arm so that it may cause no harm to any human being.


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